The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration released the first image of a black hole with observations of the massive, dark object at the center of Messier 87, or M87, last April. [58][59] The mechanism and source of weak-line-dominated ionization in LINERs and M87 are under debate. 875, No. The clusters are similar in size distribution to those of the Milky Way, most having an effective radius of 1 to 6 parsecs. (There is a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy — the Milky Way.) [101], Examination of M87 at far infrared wavelengths shows an excess emission at wavelengths longer than 25 μm. [85][86] The jet is precessing, causing the outflow to form a helical pattern out to 1.6 parsecs (5.2 light-years). In 1781, the French astronomer Charles Messier published a catalogue of 103 objects that had a nebulous appearance as part of a list intended to identify objects that might otherwise be confused with comets. [23] The source was confirmed to be M87 by 1953, and the linear relativistic jet emerging from the core of the galaxy was suggested as the cause. M87's black hole has an enormous mass, which gave researchers reason to believe it may be the largest viewable black hole from Earth. The Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected loops and rings in the gas. Other features observed include narrow X-ray-emitting filaments up to 31 kiloparsecs (100,000 light-years) long, and a large cavity in the hot gas caused by a major eruption 70 million years ago. The supermassive black hole at the center of M87 studied by the EHT collaboration is 6.5 billion times more massive than the sun. 10 April 2019 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters (vol. [55] M87 is estimated to have at least 50 satellite galaxies, including NGC 4486B and NGC 4478. These observations also indicate that the variable eruptions produce sound waves of about 56 to 59 octaves below middle C in the medium. The first black hole image helped test general relativity in a new way The Event Horizon Telescope’s snapshot of M87’s black hole once again shows Einstein was right Data to produce the image were taken in April 2017, the image was produced during 2018 and was published on 10 April 2019. [114] It forms the core of the larger Virgo Supercluster, of which the Local Group (including the Milky Way) is an outlying member. Messier 87 (also known as Virgo A or NGC 4486, generally abbreviated to M87) is a supergiant elliptical galaxy with about 1 trillion stars in the constellation Virgo. A rotating disk of ionized gas surrounds the black hole, and is roughly perpendicular to the relativistic jet. The black hole in M87 received a great deal of attention in April 2019 when the Event Horizon Telescope project released the first image of a black hole from this galaxy, which has been observed many times by Chandra over its two decades of operations. A zoom into the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 (M87) from a wide field view of the entire galaxy to the supermassive black hole at its core. M87 is a supergiant elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. The supermassive black hole and its shadow, at the center of a galaxy known as M87, were photographed back in April 2017, but the results were only revealed on Wednesday. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (, fraction of this mass is in the form of stars, low-ionization nuclear emission-line region, "On radio source selection to define a stable celestial frame", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, "Observations of M87 at 5 GHz with the 5-km telescope", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, "A Brief History of High-Energy Astronomy: 1965–1969", "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results", "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. [82] The German-American astronomer Walter Baade found that light from the jet was plane polarized, which suggests that the energy is generated by the acceleration of electrons moving at relativistic velocities in a magnetic field. VI. [73] The displacement was claimed to be in the opposite direction of the jet, indicating acceleration of the black hole by the jet. tempA black hole and its shadow have been captured in an image for the first time, a historic feat by an international network of radio telescopes called the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). [17] In 1926 he produced a new categorization, distinguishing extragalactic from galactic nebulae, the former being independent star systems. [92], M87 is a very strong source of gamma rays, the most energetic rays of the electromagnetic spectrum. On Wednesday, scientists revealed a picture they took of it using eight radio telescopes, the first time humans had actually seen one of the dense celestial objects that suck up everything around them, even light.. [27] However, there is little central concentration of the X-ray emission. [21] In 1969–70, a strong component of the radio emission was found to closely align with the optical source of the jet. This results in perceived faster-than-light speeds. It was then the only known elliptical nebula for which individual stars could be resolved, although it was pointed out that globular clusters would be indistinguishable from individual stars at such distances. [40][41], The distance to M87 has been estimated using several independent techniques. The black hole is outlined by emission from hot gas swirling around it under the influence of strong gravity near its event horizon. This yields a distance of 16.4 ± 2.3 megaparsecs (53.5 ± 7.50 million light-years). [105] By comparison, the Milky Way's dust equals about a hundred million (108) solar masses. [56][57], The spectrum of the nuclear region of M87 shows the emission lines of various ions, including hydrogen (HI, HII), helium (HeI), oxygen (OI, OII, OIII), nitrogen (NI), magnesium (MgII) and sulfur (SII). Their distribution suggests that minor eruptions occur every few million years. [60], Elliptical galaxies such as M87 are believed to form as the result of one or more mergers of smaller galaxies. The regular eruptions prevent a huge reservoir of gas from cooling and forming stars, implying that M87's evolution may have been seriously affected, preventing it from becoming a large spiral galaxy. [101][102] The heavier elements from oxygen to iron are produced largely by supernova explosions within the galaxy. [8], M87 has been an important testing ground for techniques that measure the masses of central supermassive black holes in galaxies. [31] The image was revealed in a press conference on 10 April 2019, the first image of a black hole's event horizon. The distinctive spectral properties of the planetary nebulae allowed astronomers to discover a chevron-like structure in M87's halo which was produced by the incomplete phase-space mixing of a disrupted galaxy. [107], Although M87 is an elliptical galaxy and therefore lacks the dust lanes of a spiral galaxy, optical filaments have been observed in it, which arise from gas falling towards the core. Outside this radius, metallicity steadily declines as the cluster distance from the core increases. [6], Coordinates: 12h 30m 49.4s, +12° 23′ 28″, The galactic core of Messier 87 as seen by the, M87 in infrared showing shocks produced by the jets, Spiral flow of the black hole-powered jet, "local universe" is not a strictly defined term, but it is often taken as that part of the universe out to distances between about 50 million to a billion. M87 may have interacted with M84 in the past, as evidenced by the truncation of M87's outer halo by tidal interactions. Scientists have announced the first direct observation of a black hole at the center of a galaxy named M87. The lobes are surrounded by a fainter halo of radio-emitting gas. [24][25] The Aerobee rocket launched from White Sands Missile Range on 7 July 1967 yielded further evidence that the source of Virgo X-1 was the radio galaxy M87. [81], The relativistic jet of matter emerging from the core extends at least 1.5 kiloparsecs (5,000 light-years) from the nucleus and consists of matter ejected from a supermassive black hole. The jet is highly collimated, appearing constrained to an angle of 60° within 0.8 pc (2.6 light-years) of the core, to about 16° at two parsecs (6.5 light-years), and to 6–7° at twelve parsecs (39 light-years). [76], This black hole is the first and, to date, the only one to be imaged. The M87 Black Hole Now Has A Name, And There’s Already A Petition To Change It By Aakash Jhaveri 1 year, 5 months For the first time ever, mankind got a glimpse of what a black hole actually looks like , with what could be the most important photo ever clicked. [61] They generally contain relatively little cold interstellar gas (in comparison with spiral galaxies) and they are populated mostly by old stars, with little or no ongoing star formation. In 1966, the United States Naval Research Laboratory's Aerobee 150 rocket identified Virgo X-1, the first X-ray source in Virgo. This phenomenon, called superluminal motion, is an illusion caused by the relativistic velocity of the jet. A rotating disk of ionized gas surrounds the blac… 1) was dedicated to the EHT results, publishing six open-access papers. The heart of the galaxy known as M87 is a place of unimaginable violence. [14] The following year, a supernova within M87 reached a peak photographic magnitude of 21.5, although this event was not reported until photographic plates were examined by the Russian astronomer Innokentii A. Balanowski in 1922. The disk rotates at velocities of up to roughly 1,000 km/s,[69] and spans a maximum diameter of 0.12 pc (25,000 AU; 0.39 ly; 3.7 trillion km). Two flows of material emerge from this region, one aligned with the jet itself and the other in the opposite direction. "E0" designates an elliptical galaxy that displays no flattening—that is, it appears spherical. "To have the privilege of giving a Hawaiian name to the very first scientific confirmation of a black hole is very meaningful to me and my Hawaiian lineage that comes from pō, and I hope we are able to continue naming future black holes.". [6] It is organized into at least three distinct subsystems associated with the three large galaxies—M87, M49 and M86—with the subgroup centered around M87 (Virgo A) and M49 (Virgo B). The core contains a supermassive black hole (SMBH), designated M87*, whose mass is billions of times that of the Earth's Sun; estimates have ranged from (3.5±0.8)×10 M☉ to (6.6±0.4)×10 M☉, with a measurement of 7.22+0.34 −0.40×10 M☉ in 2016. [93] In general, the smaller the diameter of the emission source, the faster the variation in flux, and vice versa. Emission probably comes from shock-induced excitation as the falling gas streams encounter X-rays from the core region. Keep in mind, M87’s black hole is between about 3 and 7 billion times the mass of the Sun, or about 1,000 times more massive than the Milky Way’s black hole, Sagittarius A*. Gas accretes onto the black hole at an estimated rate of one solar mass every ten years (about 90 Earth masses per day). This short period indicates that the most likely source of the gamma rays is a supermassive black hole. This is one of the highest-known massesfor such an object. Possible causes include shock-induced excitation in the outer parts of the disk[58][59] or photoionization in the inner region powered by the jet. The flows are asymmetrical and deformed, implying that they encounter a dense intracluster medium. [20] M87 continued to be labelled as an extragalactic nebula at least until 1954. The project has been scrutinizing two black holes — the M87 behemoth, which harbors about 6.5 billion times the mass of Earth's sun, and our own Milky Way galaxy's central black hole… Compare to the coordinates of Messier 87: α=12h 31m, δ=+12° 23′. The French astronomer Charles Messier discovered M87 in 1781, and cataloged it as a nebula. [80] The rotation parameter was estimated at a = 0.9 ± 0.1, corresponding to a rotation speed of ~ 0.4c. It is unclear whether they are dwarf galaxies captured by M87 or a new class of massive globular cluster. [113], M87 is near the center of the Virgo Cluster,[39] a closely compacted structure of about 2,000 galaxies. These include measurement of the luminosity of planetary nebulae, comparison with nearby galaxies whose distance is estimated using standard candles such as cepheid variables, the linear size distribution of globular clusters,[c] and the tip of the red-giant branch method using individually resolved red giant stars. IV. The cluster has a sparse gaseous atmosphere that emits X-rays that decrease in temperature toward the middle, where M87 is located. [32][77][78] The image shows the shadow of the black hole[79], surrounded by an asymmetric emission ring with a diameter of 3.36×10−3 parsecs (0.0110 ly). The truncated halo may also have been caused by contraction due to an unseen mass falling into M87 from the rest of the cluster, which may be the hypothesized dark matter. Forming around one-sixth of its mass, M87's stars have a nearly spherically symmetric distribution. [51] The extended stellar envelope of this galaxy reaches a radius of about 150 kiloparsecs (490,000 light-years),[6] compared with about 100 kiloparsecs (330,000 light-years) for the Milky Way. The line intensities for weakly ionized atoms (such as neutral atomic oxygen, OI) are stronger than those of strongly ionized atoms (such as doubly ionized oxygen, OIII). Carbon and nitrogen are continuously supplied by stars of intermediate mass as they pass through the asymptotic giant branch. But while you need a billion-pound telescope network to see it … [106] The combined mass of dust in M87 is no more than 70,000 times the mass of the Sun. A black hole up to seven billion times as massive as the Sun sits at the galaxy's center -- one of the most massive black holes ever measured. In April 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration released measurements of the black hole's mass as (6.5 ± 0.2stat ± 0.7sys) × 10 M☉. Pōwehi means 'embellished dark source of unending creation'. [29], M87 was the subject of observation by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) in 2017. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole", "These Are the First Pictures of a Black Hole — And That's a Big, Even Supermassive, Deal", "The LINER Nucleus of M87: A Shock-excited Dissipative Accretion Disk", "How do you name a black hole? Another suggestion was that the change in location occurred during the merger of two supermassive black holes. Normally, this may be an indication of thermal emission by warm dust. So astronomers have denoted the object as M87* (the asterisk refers to a black hole, just like Saggitarius A* refers to the likely black hole in our own galaxy). [101] The distribution of oxygen is roughly uniform throughout, at about half of the solar value (i.e., oxygen abundance in the Sun), while iron distribution peaks near the center where it approaches the solar iron value. [116] In terms of mass, M87 is a dominant member of the cluster, and hence appears to be moving very little relative to the cluster as a whole. [7] Viewing the jet is a challenge without the aid of photography. [93][94], A knot of matter in the jet (designated HST-1), about 65 parsecs (210 light-years) from the core, has been tracked by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. [104] The combined mass of the cluster is estimated to be 0.15–1.5 × 1015 solar masses. [3], M87 is one of the most massive galaxies in the local Universe. Snapshots of the M87* black hole obtained through imaging/geometric modeling, and the EHT array of telescopes from 2009 to 2017. In 2006, using the High Energy Stereoscopic System Cherenkov telescopes, scientists measured the variations of the gamma ray flux coming from M87, and found that the flux changes over a matter of days. [111] Within a four-kiloparsec (13,000-light-year) radius of the core, the cluster metallicity—the abundance of elements other than hydrogen and helium—is about half the abundance in the Sun. [36] A "p" suffix indicates a peculiar galaxy that does not fit cleanly into the classification scheme; in this case, the peculiarity is the presence of the jet emerging from the core. A third possibility is that the halo's formation was truncated by early feedback from the active galactic nucleus at the core of M87. India's Mangalyaan just photographed Mars' mysterious moon 'Phobos', #WeeklyRecap: Sony PS5, Android 11 Beta, Twitter Fleets, and more, Closest black hole to Earth discovered: Details here, Here's what Kimura said of the Hawaiian name, However, many are not happy from the naming choice, Petition has already got nearly 45,000 signatures. [71] The Schwarzschild radius of the black hole is 5.9×10−4 parsecs (1.9×10−3 light-years), which is around 120 times the Earth–Sun distance. The size of the M87 clusters gradually increases with distance from the galactic center. [34] In more recent years it has been observed in larger amateur telescopes under excellent conditions. A 2006 survey out to an angular distance of 25′ from the core estimates that there are 12,000 ± 800 globular clusters in orbit around M87,[110] compared with 150–200 in and around the Milky Way. At greater distances, both flows diffuse into two lobes. The total energy of these electrons is estimated at 5.1 × 1056 ergs[83] (5.1 × 1049 joules or 3.2 × 1068 eV). [21][22], In 1947, a prominent radio source, Virgo A, was identified overlapping the location of M87. [51][108] Surrounding the galaxy is an extended corona with hot, low-density gas. Within a radius of 32 kiloparsecs (100,000 light-years), the mass is (2.4±0.6)×1012 times the mass of the Sun,[42] which is double the mass of the Milky Way galaxy. [109], M87 has an abnormally large population of globular clusters. Using the Event Horizon Telescope, scientists obtained an image of the black hole at the center of the galaxy M87. [19] In his 1936 The Realm of the Nebulae, Hubble examines the terminology of the day; some astronomers labeled extragalactic nebulae as external galaxies on the basis that they were stellar systems at far distances from our own galaxy, while others preferred the conventional term extragalactic nebulae, as galaxy then was synonym for the Milky Way. The petition to name the black hole - located at the center of M87 galaxy - after Cornell has already got nearly 45,000 signatures and is zooming towards the target of 50,000. [28] After the installation of the COSTAR corrective-optics module in the Hubble Space Telescope in 1993, the Hubble Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) was used to measure the rotation velocity of the ionized gas disk at the center of M87, as an "early release observation" designed to test the scientific performance of the post-repair Hubble instruments. M87 was classified as a type of elliptical extragalactic nebula with no apparent elongation (class E0). It is actually pretty complicated", "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. [48] As with other galaxies, only a fraction of this mass is in the form of stars: M87 has an estimated mass to luminosity ratio of 6.3 ± 0.8; that is, only about one part in six of the galaxy's mass is in the form of stars that radiate energy. It is one of the brightest radio sources in the sky and a popular target for both amateur and professional astronomers. [97], The interaction of relativistic jets of plasma emanating from the core with the surrounding medium gives rise to radio lobes in active galaxies. [b] The galaxy can be observed using a small telescope with a 6 cm (2.4 in) aperture, extending across an angular area of 7.2 × 6.8 arcminutes at a surface brightness of 12.9, with a very bright, 45-arcsecond core. [105] This dust may be destroyed by the hostile environment or expelled from the galaxy. Its interstellar medium consists of diffuse gas enriched by elements emitted from evolved stars. But, as it turns out, many don't approve and want the moniker to be changed. [50], The galaxy experiences an infall of gas at the rate of two to three solar masses per year, most of which may be accreted onto the core region. [15][16], In 1922, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble categorized M87 as one of the brighter globular nebulae, as it lacked any spiral structure, but like spiral nebulae, appeared to belong to the family of non-galactic nebulae. [102][103] Since oxygen is produced mainly by core-collapse supernovae, which occur during the early stages of galaxies and mostly in outer star-forming regions,[101][102][103] the distribution of these elements suggests an early enrichment of the interstellar medium from core-collapse supernovae and a continuous contribution from Type Ia supernovae throughout the history of M87. The M87 black hole, however, was already so well-known that the EHT team at Haystack Observatory simply referred to it as "M87," or occasionally "3C … The midpoint of the pair is at α=12h 16m, δ=12° 45′. The black hole in question is about 53 million light years away in the center of a galaxy called Messier 87, or M87 for short. [26] Subsequent X-ray observations by the HEAO 1 and Einstein Observatory showed a complex source that included the active galactic nucleus of M87. Called Sagittarius A*, that black hole is relatively puny compared to M87, containing the mass of just four million suns. [114], Measurements of the motion of intracluster planetary nebulae between M87 and M86 suggest that the two galaxies are moving toward each other and that this may be their first encounter. This jet extended from the core at a position angle of 260° to an angular distance of 20″ with an angular width of 2″. This is why many want the photographed black hole to be named after him. The lobes occur in pairs and are often symmetrical. They resemble globular clusters but have a diameter of ten parsecs (33 light-years) or more, much larger than the three-parsec (9.8-light-year) maximum of globular clusters. The galaxy is a strong source of multiwavelength radiation, particularly radio waves. As gas spirals into the black hole, it's heated to millions of degrees, so it produces enormous amounts of X-rays. Detection of such motion is used to support the theory that quasars, BL Lacertae objects and radio galaxies may all be the same phenomenon, known as active galaxies, viewed from different perspectives. The newly imaged supermassive monster lies in a galaxy called M87. Thus, M87 was the eighty-seventh object listed in Messier's catalogue. [38][39] A D galaxy has an elliptical-like nucleus surrounded by an extensive, dustless, diffuse envelope. In subsequent use, each catalogue entry was prefixed with an "M". Its diameter is estimated at 240,000 light-years, which is slightly larger than that of the Milky Way. THE world's first photo of a black hole was released yesterday – a blurry photo of the distant object M87. [d] These measurements are consistent with each other, and their weighted average yields a distance estimate of 16.4 ± 0.5 megaparsecs (53.5 ± 1.63 million light-years). The time interval between any two light pulses emitted by the jet is, as registered by the observer, less than the actual interval due to the relativistic speed of the jet moving in the direction of the observer. Of the heavy elements, about 60% were produced by core-collapse supernovae, while the remainder came from type Ia supernovae. The FOS data indicated a central black hole mass of 2.4 billion solar masses, with 30% uncertainty. The black hole in question is about 53 million light years away in the center of a galaxy called Messier 87, or M87 for short. I. [70] Lobes of expelled matter extend out to 80 kiloparsecs (260,000 light-years). Epsilon Virginis is at celestial coordinates α=13h 02m, δ=+10° 57′; Denebola is at α=11h 49m, δ=+14° 34′. The shot, produced from a global array of observatories, made major headlines, prompting the astronomers involved in the project to give the void an epic name - Pōwehi. The most famous black hole now has a name. [6][53] There is evidence of linear streams of stars to the northwest of the galaxy, which may have been created by tidal stripping of orbiting galaxies or by small satellite galaxies falling in toward M87. Overlaid on the picture is a scale image of the Solar System, showing the Sun, Pluto (one of the most well-known dwarf planets) and its orbital path, and Voyager 1, a deep-space probe and the current farthest probe from Earth. A world-spanning network of observatories called the Event Horizon Telescope, or EHT, zoomed in on M87 to create this first-ever picture of a black hole. [115] There is a preponderance of elliptical and S0 galaxies around M87, with a chain of elliptical galaxies aligned with the jet. M87 is about 16.4 million parsecs (53 million light-years) from Earth and is the second-brightest galaxy within the northern Virgo Cluster, having many satellite galaxies. [112], Almost a hundred ultra-compact dwarfs have been identified in M87. [33] Before 1991, the Russian-American astronomer Otto Struve was the only person known to have seen the jet visually, using the 254 cm (100 in) Hooker telescope. Unlike a disk-shaped spiral galaxy, M87 has no distinctive dust lanes. [63][64], The core contains a supermassive black hole (SMBH), designated M87*,[30][65] whose mass is billions of times that of the Earth's Sun; estimates have ranged from (3.5±0.8)×109 M☉[66] to (6.6±0.4)×109 M☉,[66] with a measurement of 7.22+0.34−0.40×109 M☉ in 2016. M87. [18], In 1931, Hubble described M87 as a member of the Virgo Cluster, and gave a provisional estimate of 1.8 million parsecs (5.9 million light-years) from Earth. [84] The jet is surrounded by a lower-velocity non-relativistic component. As the Hawaiian connection makes more sense in this case, it is pretty unlikely that astronomers will consider the request. This yields a distance of 16.7 ± 0.9 megaparsecs (54.5 ± 2.94 million light-years). [98] The two radio lobes of M87 together span about 80 kiloparsecs; the inner parts, extending up to two kiloparsecs, emit strongly at radio wavelengths. That said, Pōwehi (embellished dark source of unending creation) isn't a bad name either, especially for something that sits 53 million light years away from us and can be seen as nothing but a dark round void circled by a ring of fire. [6] It is defined as the cluster center. [73][74] However, a 2011 study did not find any statistically significant displacement,[75] and a 2018 study of high-resolution images of M87 concluded that the apparent spatial offset was caused by temporal variations in the jet's brightness rather than a physical displacement of the black hole from the galaxy's center. This is roughly 1013 times the energy produced by the Milky Way in one second, which is estimated at 5 × 1036 joules. The escape of the cluster with such a high velocity was speculated to have been the result of a close encounter with, and subsequent gravitational kick from, a supermassive black hole binary. By 2006, the X-ray intensity of this knot had increased by a factor of 50 over a four-year period,[96] while the X-ray emission has since been decaying in a variable manner. A D type supergiant is called a cD galaxy. Hawaiian Roots. It has an active supermassive black hole at its core, which forms the primary component of an active galactic nucleus. There is evidence of a counter jet, but it remains unseen from the Earth due to relativistic beaming. The black hole was imaged using data collected in 2017 by the Event Horizon Telescope, with a final, processed image released on 10 April 2019. While the name sounds epic, thousands of people are petitioning to get it changed in the honor of Chris Cornell, the lead singer for Soundgarden and Audioslave. The shadow radius is 2.6 times that of the black hole's Schwarzschild radius. ... Dempsey was among 200 scientists who worked to capture an image of the massive black hole in the M87 galaxy nearly 54 million light-years from Earth. [43] The total mass of M87 may be 200 times that of the Milky Way. Pōwehi isn’t just the perfect name for the M87 black hole because it bears an epic meaning: “embellished dark source of unending creation.”. [109] Clusters with low metallicity are somewhat larger than metal-rich clusters. [87], In pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1999, the motion of M87's jet was measured at four to six times the speed of light. In addition to providing a brand-new test for all alternative formulations of gravity, it also connects the constraints from black hole images to those from other gravitational experiments. Flux variations, characteristic of the BL Lacertae objects, have been observed in M87. Cornell passed away two years ago and is accredited for writing 'Black Hole Sun', one of the biggest anthems of the 90s. "This would be a "surreal" and amazing way to honor his life and his contribution to music," Giulianna Jarrin, the requester of name change wrote on the petition page. [67] In April 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration released measurements of the black hole's mass as (6.5 ± 0.2stat ± 0.7sys) × 109 M☉. Its galactic envelope extends to a radius of about 150 kiloparsecs (490,000 light-years), where it is truncated—possibly by an encounter with another galaxy. [99][100], The space between the stars in M87 is filled with a diffuse interstellar medium of gas that has been chemically enriched by the elements ejected from stars as they passed beyond their main sequence lifetime. [108] These filaments have an estimated mass of about 10,000 solar masses. One of the rings, caused by a major eruption, is a shock wave 26 kiloparsecs (85,000 light-years) in diameter around the black hole.

m87 black hole name

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