2009;46(6):796–803. The American Journal of Nursing, the profession's premier journal, promotes excellence in the nursing and healthcare profession. Google Scholar. J Adv Nurs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe registered nurses’ conceptions of caring. BMC Nurs 14, 16 (2015). Instr Sci. Drummond JS. keeping patients clean, fed, hydrated, calm and involved, was also conceived as being part of caring as nursing interventions. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe. Nursing: the philosophy and science of caring. McCance TV, McKenna HP, Boore JRP. A variety of designs are used, including experimental, quasi- experimental, descriptive, qualitative, exploratory, and case studies. Our results imply that caring is strongly linked to the context. What do you prefer when showering, how do you want to? Scand J Caring Sci. 2003;12(1):85–92. 2006;1(1):3. Ewa Kazimiera Andersson. Teamwork is also known to improve patient planning, is clinically more efficient and supports a person-centred care [36]. The nurses described, how as a collaborative unit, they stood by the patient and where the many faces of caring were described, i.e. 1984;11(6):46–50. The first author conducted the interviews between March and May 2013. Marton F, Booth S. Learning and awareness. Van den Heede K, Lesaffre E, Diya L, Vleugels A, Clarke SP, Aiken LH, et al. Int J Nurs Stud. Ekman et al. In that context Peplau [2] was the first to introduce, what was at the time, the revolutionary theoretical idea that nurses provide care to patients in a relationship based on communication. Showing respect for the person’s decisions or opinions, especially when they were not in accordance with the opinion of the professionals, was regarded as being essential to caring. 2003;16(4):288–96. In a metasynthesis, Finfgeld-Connett [14] describes caring as a context-specific, interpersonal process signified, among other things, by intimate relationships and interpersonal sensitivity. We reviewed articles in English, published in scientific journals with peer-reviewing processes between January 2005 and October 2016. 2, Manuscript 4. The move towards person-centredness most likely comes down to “….changes in the dominant views of society and lack of confidence in healthcare professionals, not simply because the healthcare professionals have adapted their thinking to be more respectful of patients’ rights” ([27] p. 696). Nursing must be a graduate profession (Well, he would say that, wouldn’t he!). Nurse-Clarke N, DiCicco-Bloom B, Limbo R. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. Nursing has come a long way since the 1860s and the ‘Nightingale Training School and Home for Nurses’ at St Thomas’s Hospital in London. (A7). Watson J. The interviews lasted from 31 to 59 minutes and were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The study was performed in compliance with the ethical guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Lund (H15 2010/101 and 2012/406). An iterative process was used throughout the data analysis to check interpretations against the texts and the descriptive categories. Larson PJ. This also implies constantly questioning the rationale for routine care. The main reasons for this development can be traced back to advances in medical science and technology, including information technology, as well as an increase in the cost of healthcare. Limiting the number of healthcare professionals involved in follow-up was said to contribute to the continuity of care and caring, safeguarding the interests of the patient. Karanikolos M, Mladovsky P, Cylus J, Thomson S, Basu S, Stuckler D, et al. Int J Nurs Stud. One participant stated: It’s important that you know the technical aspect so that we can observe and see that: No this is pretty unstable, so you can sound the alarm and maybe change your mind and initiate various measures earlier than you possibly planned. 21 st Century nursing is the glue that holds a patient’s health care journey together. In the first step, using an inductive approach, the interviews were read and re-read to gain an overall impression of the data. Assessment of the essentials of care, i.e. Norman I. Becoming aware of global trends and issues is the first step in understanding one’s position and role within a larger global context, thereby aiding in the development of an individual’s global identity. In phenomenography, the second-order perspective is essential, which was adopted in this study. This account serves to guide therapeutic teaching as well as to encourage further scholarly work examining the relationship between Swanson's caring theory and nursing education. By acknowledging caring as person-centredness, caring as safeguarding the patient’s best interests, caring as nursing interventions and caring as contextually intertwined, caring could open up the possibility of influencing the patient’s experiences and well-being in different ways. Andersson EK, Borglin G, Willman A. Richards DA, Borglin G. Complex interventions and nursing: looking through a new lens at nursing research. We would like to thank the registered nurses who participated in the study and Patrick O’ Malley for his help with language revision. [37] can the nurse determine when to deviate from evidence-based practice in order to meet a patient’s preferences and values and deliver high-quality PCC. The two CCUs are divided into two parts – one emergency care part (six-seven single rooms) and one step-down/rehabilitation part (6–11 rooms with 16–19 beds) with telemetry facilities. In research and practice, a common belief is that teamwork is best when the team has the best—that is, the smartest—people; yet recent research challenges this assumption. Theoretical concerns. care plan. The principles behind any intervention that nurses engage in must achieve positive nursing care outcomes, which according to Cronenwett et al. Oncol Nurs Forum. Cho S, Hwang JH, Kim J. The fact that this issue was under examination from the 1970s through to the 1990s makes these questions particularly pertinent. It includes the promotion of health, the prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. 1999;15(1):34–43. : Elsevier; 2013. Caring Science and nursing offers a deeper, moral, philosophical, knowledgeable value-based approach relevant to sustaining the dignity of humanity worldwide as well as the profession of nursing (Clarke, Watson & Brewer, 2009). Buckingham, Philadelphia: European Observatory on Health Care Systems. Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. In a linguistic dictionary, the term is a synonym of “well-being”, and is defined as aid and solace in moments of affliction.15, 16 Comfort has always been a central concern and concept in nursing and it is particularly important in the definition of the nature of nursing knowledge, the discipline, and the profession. Hence, a continual process of iteration between a focus on the whole and the parts was used to check on the interpretation until the descriptive categories that emerged from the data were found to be mutually exclusive. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Findings: Holistic describes “whole person care” often acknowledging body–mind–spirit. Caring was also conceived as protecting patients from unnecessary suffering. In fact, professional competency in nurses is defined as a combination of skills, knowledge, attitudes, values and abilities that bring about effective or high performance in occupational and professional positions [ 6 ]. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. Although this study highlights some valuable learning points, it is important to note that it is a study performed in a specific setting and context. Across the entire patient experience, and wherever there is someone in need of care, nurses work tirelessly to identify and protect the needs of the individual. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Their overall working experience ranged from one to 42 years (median =20.0 mean = 19.0) and in the CCU from 0.5 to 27 years (median =16.1 mean = 18.0). Interpersonal skills development in Generation Y student nurses: a literature review. Nurse staffing and patient mortality in intensive care units. 2011;48(5):531–33. This stood out as being the core of their conception of caring and the main supporting feature of caring as safeguarding the patient’s best interests and caring as nursing interventions. Ball JE, Murrells T, Rafferty AM, Morrow E, Griffiths P. ‘Care left undone’ during nursing shifts: associations with workload and perceived quality of care. They strived to explore and reach an understanding of the person’s individual illness narration and the impact of the illness on everyday life and to do so with sensitivity and based on the person’s overall situation. A concept represents a symbol or a building block of a bigger spectrum; it is the basis of what the researcher wants to pursue.6 In nursing, research can be applied through the use of EBP. Seven of the nurses shifted between the emergency and step down/rehabilitation part of the CCU, one worked only with secondary prevention and cardiac rehabilitation and the remaining 13 shifted between both parts of the CCU and nurse-led follow-up outpatient clinics (heart failure, arrhythmia and anticoagulation therapy e.g. The nurses stated that they are bearers of important information and knowledge about the patient’s present situation and desires, thus acting as intermediaries between the patient and the other team members. Have you heard her whole story? The other CCU had no access to the aforementioned services, and the patients from this CCU were therefore taken by ambulance to the first CCU if diagnostic and/or interventional therapy was required. Did you look her in the eye? Caring is not a passive, static set of interventions occurring in isolation and without a strong connection to the context in which it occurs. In nursing homes in the USA, federal law guarantees certain rights to residents. Completely unaffected? The results show that nurses conceived caring as undertaking nursing interventions, hence caring aimed at improving the patient’s symptoms, enhancing their well-being, promoting health and meeting the patient’s need for essential care and information while at the same time consistently putting the patient’s interests first. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-015-0067-9. Caring science and the science of unitary human beings: A trans-theoretical discourse for nursing knowledge development. Nurs Sci Q. Cookies policy. The integrated care pathway reduced the number of hospital days by half: a prospective comparative study of patients with acute hip fracture. The top ten caring behaviors, derived from nursing literature are; attentive listening, comforting, honesty, patience, responsibility, providing information so the patient can make an informed decision, touch, sensitivity, respect, calling the patient by name (Taber’s 1993). Our findings thus reflected caring as interventions taking place with the patient and not for the patient. Peplau HE. Nurse Educ Today. Gallant MH, Beaulieu MC, Carnevale FA. However, just like normative philosophical descriptions of caring, mirroring the content of nursing education, these descriptions are not strange when considering the relative lack of empirical studies investigating how contemporary caring can be understood. Registered nurses’ descriptions of caring: a phenomenographic interview study. 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